Admire the beautiful trees are not only the owners of private houses, but also the most common inhabitants of the apartments. Place in a small room coniferous or deciduous plants will allow olderthe art of bonsai. The first to grow shrubs and trees in small steel bowls in ancient China, but the plants chosen are not decorative but edible or necessary for the manufacture of drugs.
The Japanese have always appreciated the beauty and know how to behold. They borrowed the practice of growing trees, but deprived them of any practical use. Bonsai - a real the art of growing miniature trees, Which can master each. What difficulties could face an aspiring florist? And how to form a crown trees?
The choice of the future bonsai style
To get an unusual and showy plant,you need to decide with what bonsai style appeals to you. Depending on the direction selected and the particular plant species. Beginners often make the mistake of buying unsuitable trees, and trying to give them the desired shape.
So, there are several common styles of bonsai that are easy to distinguish from each other.
Vertical style bonsai
This style has two subspecies: classic and free. In the first case a tree trunk must be perfectly straight, have a perfect conical shape. The lower branches differ larger volume towards the top branches getting thinner.
Free-form means bending the trunk, which in turn "waste" to the right and to the left. Yet the general direction of growth - up.
For vertical style fit any plants, but free subspecies recommended for conifers.
This interesting form can be obtained in one of twoways: landed two different plants, or from the same root. Beginners will be easier to get used to two different plants, and pick up their need, so that in a couple was pronounced leader. Weaker tree, however, should not be sick.
The composition may be a strictly vertical and slightly inclined.
Metloobraznaya form of bonsai
This style of bonsai requires special attention totree as to achieve the ideal of "equality" between all branches difficult. Apical escape pinch out at a height of about one-third of the total size of the trees. From this point begin to grow skeletal branches. must observe equal proportionsThickness of the branches should be equal. Thus is formed a beautiful and broad crown.
This style is suitable for leafy plants with spreading branches, which naturally form a large crown.
Plateau-like form of bonsai
Such a plant is rare, because theseveral trunks at a distance from each other are formed from the same tree. How to achieve such an unusual species? Picked seedling, one side of which the branches grow more active than the other. "Thick" section and will be the basis for bonsai. Unnecessary branches are cut off from the other side, on this side of the incision, and the tree itself is placed in a container with soil horizontally. roots start to grow on the ground cuts. Thus one side branches eventually turn into trunks.
Multilateral form of bonsai
This style is also a lot of baggage, the exhaust from the same root. But the tree form can be virtually any: vertical, curved and even inclined.
Forest style bonsats
But in this case, the number of stems determinesthe number of plants. Planted several trees (necessarily odd). The composition formed a fairly compact, to emphasize the similarity to the forest. Central tree typically above all others, it brings to the fore, placing on the sides of two more high trees. All unnecessary branches are removed, leaving bare stems, thin out the crown. But the background is represented by smaller trees with thick branches.
The literary form of bonsai
An interesting and unusual plant species is achievedconstant adjustments. The trunk of this tree is constantly bent. Consider all the slopes quite easy, since the trunk is completely laid bare, leaving only the top of the young shoots. The combination of the large old trunk and young branches is especially appreciated in this style.
it is recommended to use pine densely branched plants for bonsai form.
The cascade form of bonsai
These trees are found slightly more often becauseThey look very impressive and immediately catch the eye. Cascading forms characteristic of the Wild rocky areas. Powerful root system is strengthened in the ground, and the plant itself hangs down along the cliffs.
Separately allocated and polukaskadnaya formWhich is different tilts. The lower branches of the plants should be at the base of the bowl.
Another common form of assuminguniform slope to one side. The trunk can be very thin and thick, but not necessarily at the roots must remain open surface. This kind of gives the impression of "anguish", like a powerful hurricane was trying to uproot a tree.
To generate suitable both deciduous and coniferous trees.
tilt level in this style of bonsai is close tocritical. In nature, such forms are found on the coast, where the wind constantly blows from one side only. The barrel is formed in such difficult conditions, and looks as if he is constantly under pressure.
The choice of the cutting
Grow Bonsai can be a variety of ways. If you want to choose their own style of wood and can wait, then do not buy young plants and cuttings, or give preference to the seeds. The last option is ideal for people who know how to wait.
Sharing is ideal for the cultivation of bonsai. It should be taken with a one-year (two years in some cases) of the tree. The size of the shoot is typically less than 10 centimeters. To root system formed quickly in the soil add special compounds that accelerate root formation.
Make sure that the cutting was taken from healthy plants. On the escape should be no more than 6-8 leaves. Neoderevenevshaya part is removed before planting in a pot.
Choosing a ceramic bowl
A very important part of the training - it is a choicethe right pot for growing a bonsai tree. The bowl should not only fit into the interior, and combined with the plant, but also meet many functional requirements. For example, note presence of wide drainage holes. Excess moisture can cause the development of diseases, root rot and cause the death of the plant.
The size of the pot must also meet certain parameters. Experts recommend adhere to the following rules:
- bowl depth equal to the diameter of the trunk at the base,
- width - 2-3 cm less than the length of the branches,
- and length - not more than two thirds of the width or height of the timber.
However, do not rush with the choice of a suitable ceramic bowls as stalks are usually grown in a container, and in a beautiful pot transplanted only a year or two.
Preparing the soil before planting
Cuttings are planted to produce shoots in a mixture of peat and sand. The recommended depth for the escape of the size of 10 cm - 3 cm. After watering the plant is covered with polyethylene to protect against changes in temperature, wind and sunlight.
Only after the first shoots of a tree will, it can be accustomed to the sun and fresh air (if the assumed growing on the balcony or on the street).
Transplant into a ceramic cup is recommended a year later - two, when the tree will be accepted and will go to growth. At this point comes the most crucial phase - the formation of stem and crown.
In order to give the plant the desired form, it is first necessary slow down its growth. And this will help properly selected primer. Features of the soil, of course, depend on the particular type of tree. Yet it is worth remembering that poor land - is the foundation of bonsai. The composition typically includes peat, rocks and sand, humus leaves. The roots are cut, and the tree is transplanted into the prepared bowl.
How to grow bonsai at home?
Feature bonsai is that in this art It is given daily. A good host knows all the features of their plants, can remember all the twigs and continuously monitors the state of the trees.
First of all need to be concerned about the growth of, or rather,his moderation. Even on poor and stony soil can grow quite large tree, if you do not artificially restrain him. For this special clippers trimmed trunk in several places. Juice will be put on the healing of wounds, rather than rapid growth.
Pruning branches also slows down the process, but to resort to this method is rare. Moreover, the branches should be clearly structured.
You must also see to it that the tree has taken a selected shape. For this trunk and branches are fixed armbands or ringsEven wrapped in wire.
Caring for bonsai
To tree delight you with their views of many years, try to observe simple rules:
- regular watering should be done not from above but from the roots of the tree;
- branches and leaves should be sprayed with water to nourish them and to remove dust, but this procedure can be carried out only in the morning;
- bowl with bonsai should not be exposed to direct sunlight;
- the plant should cover frost and protected from excessive heat;
- Regular pruning branches and roots will form the desired size and shape of the tree.