To realize the dream of an ideal homeIt is necessary to take care not only of its internal filling, but also of the external appearance. In what style the building should be sustained, many factors determine: surrounding objects, the landscape, technical and financial possibilities. But the main criterion should be the choice and desires of the one who will live in this house.
In recent years, the fachwerk direction has become popular for styling houses.
History of the fachwerk style and its modern manifestations
For the first time this style in construction has proved itself in15th century in Germany. The main feature of this direction is the panel construction of buildings. This style of construction of structures was used throughout Europe. On the frame of wooden panels, buildings of various purposes were built. It is noteworthy that wooden elements carry both an important skeleton function and decorative. The concept of "wooden frame house" for more than 6 centuries.
Wireframe construction methods are also used in elite construction. The large area of the glazing of this house gives a feeling of unity with nature. In addition, this style does not limit the imagination of the designer.
In the modern manifestation the half-timbered frame appeared in the 70'sYears of the 20th century. In a situation where the trend of that time was the restructuring of old forms into something new and not always successful, the fachwerk received a fresh and interesting continuation of its development. The founders of the renewed style were Valtor Gropius and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Architects have changed the wooden frames to other of the more durable materials, while maintaining a solid glass facade.
Later, these cumbersome frames were replaced again. This time it was a greener and lightweight glued beam. This is how the modern half-timbered frame has shown itself. It can be noted that little is left of the old style. Huge glass surfaces replaced the blind walls with small double-glazed windows. Considerable importance is attached to thermal insulation. The main thing left is the wooden beams as the frame of the house.
Technologies for the construction of houses in the style of half-timbered houses
Excellent thermal properties of woodMade it one of the best materials for building houses. Properly selected dry wood will fulfill all the tasks assigned to it. But if the details of the bar are not sufficiently dried, then the list of problems can appear:
- Extruding the frame;
- Not fully closed doors;
- Slots on surfaces;
- Deformation of the roof;
- Swollen finishing materials and many other unpleasant manifestations.
Main in this construction should be compliance with the main criteria:
- Optimal rigidity of the structure;
- Compliance with the requirements of geometry;
- Durability of materials.
To dry the beam or log bestThe method will be the use of chamber drying. Otherwise, it is impossible to dry thick wooden elements. If the drying was not carried out correctly, the wood is deformed, cracked, and also shrinkage occurs. Such a defective material is not suitable for the erection of structures, since it will entail defects in ready-made structures.
An important stage during construction is shrinkageBuildings. Massive wood is required for this for a while. Without this, you can not start finishing. This stage can be skipped if you build structures from glued beams. Such material is characterized by all the advantages of massive wood and does not show its disadvantages. In the process of shrinkage, such material practically does not change. This gives unlimited possibilities in architectural terms.
Advantages and disadvantages of style
Any style has its advantages and negative qualities. Their balance means that this style is suitable in this or that case.
Style Fachwerk is also endowed with a number of features. Having studied them, the owner of the future structure should decide for himself whether he will put up with the existing disadvantages of the design and whether it has enough pluses.
Among the advantages of such houses are:
- A good microclimate inside, due to the ecological compatibility of the tree and its ability to pass air and soak up unpleasant odors;
- Constant humidity;
- Antiseptic properties of air in the room due to the evaporation of natural resins and essential oils from wood;
- Presentable appearance of the building;
- Simplicity of assembly and decoration.
Among the minuses the main ones are:
- Poor thermal insulation;
- Every 25 years the design requires replacement;
- Expensive construction of the building.
Despite the popularity of fachwerk style, the price ofSuch a house remains high and is at a level of 1200-1600 euros per square meter. In order to obtain a good result of the construction, it is necessary that the building be erected by professionals from high-quality materials. Numerous nuances of assembly make independent construction almost impossible.
However, you can choose an inexpensive optionImitation of a fachwerk style. With this technology of erecting pre-rendered walls, beams are built of artificial or natural wood. This option is of a decorative nature and most of the properties, advantages and disadvantages of a full-fledged structure do not apply to it.
The glass variant is closest to the historicalOriginal structure. The space between the frame beams is filled with a dense glass canvas, which has an amazing safety margin. Such a structure is not only beautiful and stylish, but also has excellent practical properties.
The main connoisseurs of fachwerk style are those who seek to be closer to nature and surround themselves with natural objects and species.