Today's article is rather informativecharacter, since it contains the five most significant, fundamental architectural elements that are used anytime, anywhere in the building, interior design and decorating the premises.
It's about the "five pillars of architecture" -elements, without which we can not imagine a decoration of residential and public buildings, but they need to know about the details especially when you intend to start building your own home.
Columns - a vertical support structure, consisting of a base, trunk and capitals.
In ancient Greek columns carrying an entablature and a roof supported together with him. Romans, unlike the Greeks, the column used for decorative purposes, and preferred system arched columns.
Columns can be paired as Roman, beamscolumns as Norman, freestanding, as Indian. The trunk, in turn, can be simple or ornate (by the way, is used in modern interiors, rather, the first option is more universal and democratic).
If you want to use the columns in the construction of homes that are being built, you should know about the main order system with certain features for which the column belongs to a particular order.
Doric, seemingly the most simple butthe oldest, developed in Greece. Doric columns consists of a low base, the monumental trunk, concise capitals. Ideal for modern minimalist rooms, living rooms and halls in classic Mediterranean style.
Ionic order developed almost simultaneously withDoric, but the final shape has acquired only to the middle of V in. BC Look Ionic columns smarter: ease of proportions, elegance more dissected forms, excessive use of decoration.
Characteristic features of the Ionic column is required to establish it on the base, as well as the capital with a pillow topped with two volutes (swirls).
For the eclectic interiors installation Ionic columns will be a direct hit on target as they can get along with a variety of shapes and colors of furnishings.
Corinthian - the most diverse and richly decorated, these columns are suitable for the pathetic room decoration, always with high arches and luxurious furniture in historical styles.
Corinthian most easily recognized by their capitalscolumn, since the other part of it borrowed from the Ionic. The top of the column, capital, resembles a basket, entwined with acanthus leaves (plants from the Mediterranean coast), curled in a spiral.
Arch design is called overlapping opening inwall or the space between two supports. Usually the top of the arch is rounded, but the shape of it varies from semi-circular to the lancet. Arches are often used as a support in the walls and foundations of houses.
The semi-circular arches in the interior
They are called by the French, and distinguishes this kind of arches rounded top, ornaments, and columns, as if carrying a load, but actually playing the role of a decorative element.
The semi-circular arches - one of the most versatile design options of door and window openings to spaces in a classic style, eclectic and even grunge interior.
The pointed and horseshoe arches in INTERIOR
Arches - is a reminder of Gothicarchitecture, as well as a direct association with the oriental flavor of Morocco. Horseshoe-shaped arches - is a tribute to Islamic architecture, it has a vault that extends beyond the heel of the arch, and can be either rounded or horseshoe with lancet top.
Renaissance ARCH INTERIOR
Another, very beautiful and exquisite style arches, which follows the Roman model of semicircular structures capstone, frieze and cornice, located within the classical orders.
In modern interiors can be seen variationRenaissance arches, a few extended and squat, with the help of which can be accentuated the gap between two adjacent rooms, such as living room and dining room, kitchen and a corridor.
Only in the 1840s. We started to produce float glass, fine and fairly wide, allowing you to admire views, not broken into pieces casements.
The earliest windows were unglazed holesin the walls, through which the room got light and fresh air. A first window panes, are executed as a functional and decorative role, appeared in Rome in about '65, but received widespread glazing in church architecture in the XIII, and in homes - in the XVI century.
About the importance of the windows in the architectural aesthetics of the evidence emerged diversity of their styles and designs of glazed windows at all times depended on the development of the glass manufacturing process.
Lancet windows in the interior
Sharpened pointed arch first appeared inIslamic architecture. This form is found in Gothic architecture, where the windows are, moreover, supplemented with stained glass tracery, and stone carvings. It is noteworthy that the later Gothic windows were consciously revived in "antique" form at the end of the XVIII century., And is widely used by Victorian architects.
Currently, the construction of houses variations lancet windows can be used to give the room a mysterious oriental character.
Round WINDOWS IN INTERIOR
The window-rose - a clever imitating flower petals or spokes of a wheel, the architectural elements in the design of the windows, which were very popular in the architecture of buildings in Roman style.
Now the round windows are the same spectacular decoration of the house, both outside and inside, but it is a simplified version of the "Rose": with thin frames or at all without them.
Round windows are called "light" and is used in high rooms of country houses at the top of the wall to better illuminate the interior space.
Bay windows and window alcove in favor of building a wall. Most interestingly decorated, they transmit more light than a window.
Alcove windows have always been located on the upper floors, but the bay windows of the square and angular type can be placed on any floor.
The interior of the bay area can serve for creativity, work at the desk, or used to host group dining room kitchen, dining room or living room.
French window - a variation of the window casement, increased to door size and starts right off the floor. As casement, French window can be opened either inwards or outwards.
The apartments French windows can be simultaneously output on a balcony or terrace and are located in the lower floor of a house - to go to the garden or conservatory.
This type of window consists of three parts -central arched doorway and two narrow side openings with a flat top. Venetian window, too, is called "serlianskogo" or "Palladian" in honor of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio and Sebastiano Serlio, popularized it.
A semicircular window divided into three lumenracks, so-called, mullions. Especially popular this type of windows was Palladian architecture, and is based on specimens found in the Baths of Diocletian in Rome, for which he also called "diokletianskim".
For the interior presence of the thermal window isa great success, as this type of use in the construction is quite rare, and designers and architects tend to romanticize semicircular, incredibly ornate windows.
Glazed window in a wooden cover,raised and lowered by a pulley. It was particularly popular in the XVIII - XIX centuries. and it is associated with the Georgian era in architecture. There are, also, the English version, for example, yorkshire window is shifted to the side.
For modern interiors gables areindicator of exceptional taste owners, their status, and also quite a classic, but because a win-win and timeless element that can transform low-key or add a refined interior.
Gables - a distinctive feature of classical andimitate the classical architecture - a sloping side of the roof, usually located above the portico. pediments are often decorated with high-relief sculpture corresponding to the overall theme of the building.
The interior of the gables, often used as architectural motifs framed windows and doors.
Classical pediments in the interior
The Renaissance architecture of the widely usedclassical forms as internal and external decorative elements. Today, the windows and doors, massive furniture can be decorated with columns, pilasters and pediments with steep slopes, edged arrow-shaped moldings.
Gables form can vary fromsegmental curved triangular up, but also popular special type - broken pediments, the circuit is divided opening either at the top or at the bottom.
With the passage of time and changing styles of architecture were invented new forms of gables, for example, torn on top, topped the urn.
Once the decoration of the pediments were central toDutch and Nordic knowledge therefore become particularly skillful and expressive: a concave and convex lines, rays, relief decoration, sculptural forms.
Today, these fragments can safely gablescompete with the usual wall decor, or completely replace it. For example, over the head of the bed, on the wall near the dining table, in the space between the arched openings.
This has become a key element of the Roman period before and initially set consisted of two parallel walls, gradually tilting each other and connected keystone at the top.
The cathedrals of medieval arches were a necessary part of the huge cathedrals, at the same time they have reached their peak, if not obeying the force of gravity.
In our opinion, currently special attention should be cylindrical and cross vaults that form a completely inimitable authentic atmosphere in the house premises.
The cylindrical body of the interior
Cylindrical or prussian vault - concave,the same for the entire length of the arch, is the main and most ancient species, which appeared in the IX. BC Cylindrical arches erected on the basis of wooden skeletal form which dismantled after the stones to form a full arch supports itself.
Cross vaults INTERIOR
When two cylindrical vaults intersect atright angles, they form protrusions or ribs. In cases where these edges lie on the stone piers, formed groin, it is called sailing.
This type of arch really looks weightless, creating a likeness of the dome over the room. Agree, boring space under the cross vault simply can not be.
The simplest is a groin vault,Of course, the shape of the cross, but in some Gothic cathedrals you can see a complex system of primary, or ridge edges, secondary (terseronov), and tertiary (stellate) edges.